Bee Variety Diversity
Out-of 2009 to 2018, 192 bee variety (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) have been caught when you look at the Calanques Federal Playground through one another net and you can pan trap series. It belonged so you can six family members and you can 38 genera. Megachilidae is by far the most varieties-steeped relatives, followed closely by Apidae and Halictidae, that have 53, forty two, and you may 43 species, correspondingly. Andrena Fabricius, 1775 is the fresh new wealthiest genus, which have 33 kinds, while eight genera have been illustrated from the just one varieties (Stelis Panzer, 1806; Protosmia Ducke, 1900; Pseudoanthidium Friese, 1898; Coelioxys Latreille, 1809; Chelostoma Latreille, 1809; Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904; Amegilla Friese, 1897; Panurgus Panzer, 1806; Supp Desk step 1 [on the internet merely] ). With the jackknife step one and you may 2 spiders, the complete bee variety fullness is estimated as ranging from ± 9.89 and ± . The latest observed richness ergo illustrated 71.step three to help you 79.6% of one’s estimated bee richness ( Desk dos). The fresh Chao1 strategy estimated brand new seen richness getting 76.8% of the prospective restriction fullness ( Table dos). More plentiful species is actually Apis mellifera L. (276 some one), with Rhodanthidium septemdentatum (Latreille, 1809), Rh. sticticum (Fabricius, 1787) (174 and you can 168 anyone, respectively), and Lasioglossum transitorium (Shenck, 1868) (113 someone). In the end, 50 variety (26%) had been depicted by singular private (singletons).
Environment Attributes of Bees
Regarding the environmental faculties out of nesting tastes, we recognized 59 unmarried bee variety nesting above ground, 92 solitary bee types nesting below ground and you may 23 cleptoparasitic variety, corresponding to 29.seven, 47.nine, and you may twelve.0% of one’s total bee types richness, respectively. We thought five societal types (bumble bees and you may honey bees-dos.1%). Finally, the newest nesting choices away from 14 variety are not familiar (7.3%- Supp Desk step one [online merely] ). Regarding the floral diet regarding bee species, i unearthed that 105 kinds (54.7%) foraged toward many plant variety (i.e., generalist kinds, polylectic) and you can 51 kinds (twenty-six.5%) foraged using one bush friends or you to definitely/partners plant types (i.age., expert species, oligolectic). Toward leftover thirty-six bee variety (18.8%), the floral eating plan wasn’t recognized (age.grams., for cleptoparasitic types). However, really generalist types presented a desires for one otherwise a few plant families ( Supp Dining table 1 [on line only] ). Towards 49 singletons, 14 bee varieties (28%) was indeed experts, and you may nine bee types (18%) was cleptoparasitic ( Supp Desk step 1 [on the web just] ).
An enthusiastic IUCN condition cougar life coupon was readily available for 178 species (leaving out this new varieties complexes and unfamiliar variety). Those types of, 47 types had been categorized as data lacking (DD-26.4%), 124 types was indeed the very least alarmed (LC-69.6%), half dozen varieties was indeed near endangered (NT-step 3.4%; Andrena ovatula (Kirby, 1802), Colletes albomaculatus (Lucas, 1849), Dasypoda argentata Panzer, 1809, Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776), Lasioglossum prasinum (Smith, 1848), and you can L. pygmaeum (Schenck, 1853)), and another kinds are experienced threatened (EN-0.6%; L. soror (Saunders, 1901)- Supp Dining table step 1 [on line only] ). Around three oligolectic species were one of many eight threatened bee species. A great. ovatula and you may C. albomaculatus are gurus towards Fabaceae, D. argentata is actually a specialist toward Caprifoliaceae.
Of 2009 to help you 2018, 38 species of hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) was in fact trapped in the Calanques National Playground. They belonged in order to twenty-four genera ( Supp Table dos [online simply] ). Probably the most plentiful genera were Paragus Latreille, 1804 (33 some body), Meliscaeva Frey, 1946 (14 anyone), and Sphaerophoria Lepeletier de- Saint-Fargeau Audinet-Serville when you look at the Latreille, 1828 (thirteen someone), while 20 varieties (53%) were represented by one private ( Supp Dining table 2 [on line merely] ). The fresh new bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae) was in fact illustrated by 20 kinds, along with five singletons (25%) ( Supp Dining table step 3 [online only] ). Brand new estimation from overall varieties fullness of hover flies and you may bee flies is actually between 83 and you can 97 variety by using the jackknife step one and you will dos spiders, correspondingly. Therefore, the newest seen fullness represented 59.8–69.9% of projected hover fly and you may bee travel fullness ( Table dos).